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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 14-21

Impact of pre-pediatric ICU management on prognosis of sepsis and septic shock at Alexandria University Children’s Hospital


Department of Pediatrics, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

Date of Web Publication7-Sep-2018

Correspondence Address:
Amel A.A Mahfouz
Department of Pediatrics, Alexandria University, Alexandria 2164655
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/AJOP.AJOP_9_18

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  Abstract 


Background Pre-pediatric ICU (PICU) management in cases of severe sepsis and septic shock is an extremely important factor in the outcome of the patients. Pre-PICU management can also be the direct cause of better outcome of cases with severe sepsis and septic shock.
Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pre-PICU management in cases of severe sepsis and septic shock at Alexandria University Children’s Hospital and its association with the survival rate of the cases.
Patients and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 40 patients during 12 months period at PICU of Alexandria University Children’s Hospital with the diagnosis of severe sepsis and/or septic shock. Their age ranged from 1 month to 12 years, 21 were males and 19 were females. All cases were subjected to history taking stressing on time from the start of illness until the patient arrived to the hospital, pre-referral treatment, number and kind of medical centers that took care of the patient before admission. The clinical condition of the patient on admission was evaluated (with respect to the degree of sepsis) and the mortality probability on admission was performed using Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 (PIM-2) score. Routine investigations were done at admission. Follow-up of the cases in PICU was evaluated by PIM-2 score, length of stay and the prognosis of cases whether improvement or death.
Results Twenty-three (57.5%) cases presented with septic shock and 17 (42.5%) cases presented with severe sepsis. Gastrointestinal tract infection and chest infection were the most common clinical sources of sepsis (16 and 10 cases, respectively). The mean of the duration from start of illness until patient arrived to the hospital was 7 days in nonsurvivors versus 3 days in survivors. Eighteen (45%) patients did not receive any antibiotic therapy before admission, whereas 22 (55%) received antibiotics via different routes before admission.
Conclusion The results indicated that gastrointestinal tract infections and chest infection were the most common clinical sources of sepsis. Administration of intravenous antimicrobial therapy with the onset of sepsis is an important factor in better prognosis of septic shock and PIM-2 score is a good predictor of mortality on the first day of admission to PICU. Referral from a tertiary hospital to PICU is a good indicator for better prognosis.

Keywords: antibiotics, pre-pediatric ICU management, septic shock, severe sepsis


How to cite this article:
El-Kinany HA, Mahfouz AA, Abd El-Fattah LE. Impact of pre-pediatric ICU management on prognosis of sepsis and septic shock at Alexandria University Children’s Hospital. Alex J Pediatr 2018;31:14-21

How to cite this URL:
El-Kinany HA, Mahfouz AA, Abd El-Fattah LE. Impact of pre-pediatric ICU management on prognosis of sepsis and septic shock at Alexandria University Children’s Hospital. Alex J Pediatr [serial online] 2018 [cited 2018 Nov 15];31:14-21. Available from: http://www.ajp.eg.net/text.asp?2018/31/1/14/240746




  Introduction Top


Sepsis is a major cause of ICU admission and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates [1]. Within the last decade, several trials and protocols have focused on this condition, aiming to establish better measures for its management and prevention of potential complications. Therapeutic measures with considerable positive impacts have been largely emphasized. Mastering this challenge is largely related to the art of medical practice and it leads to more objective care of the patients [2].

Severe sepsis and septic shock are medical emergency conditions that should alert any staff member working in the healthcare system at any level, and be treated with the highest priority in patient care. The golden hour: the time period within which rapid treatment can make an outcome difference between life and death, is nowadays a well-known term to describe the fact that within an hour the clinician has a good chance to reduce mortality and also morbidity (time is an organ). To influence outcome of the disease, the appropriateness and speed with which sepsis therapy is administered should be similar to that of other emergencies like stroke, acute myocardial infarction, and trauma. Early recognition and treatment of sepsis can be life-saving for children in developed and underdeveloped countries [3].

Pre-pediatric ICU (PICU) management in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock remains the cornerstone in the outcome of the patients, and it can also be the direct cause of better prognosis of the patients.


  Aim Top


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pre-PICU management in cases of severe sepsis and septic shock at Alexandria University Children’s Hospital (AUCH) and its association with the survival rate of the cases.


  Patients and methods Top


This cross-sectional study was conducted in PICU which is located in a tertiary care teaching hospital AUCH), with a capacity of 220 beds and nine-bedded ICU. The range of yearly admissions to PICU is 300–350 cases. The study was conducted after the approval of the Ethical Committee of Alexandria University, Egypt.

This study was conducted from April 2016 to April 2017 on 40 pediatric patients aged 1 month to 12 years of both sexes with the diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock admitted to PICU at AUCH.

The selection criteria of the cases were the following.

Inclusion criteria

Forty children were enrolled in the study who were referred to PICU at AUCH with confirmed diagnosis of sepsis syndrome based on pediatric organ dysfunction criteria [4].

Exclusion criteria

  1. Infants less than 1 month old.
  2. Patients with history of accidents or trauma.
  3. Primary immunodeficiency patients.


All the data for this study were obtained by reviewing the records of patients of PICU after taking an oral consent from their parents.

All patients who were included in this study had been subjected to the following steps on the first day of admission and followed until discharge.

Evaluation of pre-ICU medical care by:
  1. Noting the history of the patient, stressing on age, sex, residence, risk factors, date of admission, clinical source of sepsis, time from the start of illness till patient arrived at the hospital, pre-referral treatment: medications given to the patients with special emphasis on antibiotic intake, types and routes of intake, number and kind of medical centers that took care of the patient before admission (clinic, polyclinic, or hospital), and the causes of referral.
  2. Investigations were done during admission and the mode of transportation was noted.
  3. The clinical condition of the patient on admission was evaluated (with respect to the degree of sepsis) and the mortality probability on admission was performed using Pediatric Index of Mortality (PIM-2) score [5].
  4. Routine laboratory investigations at PICU (on the day of admission and the same were repeated whenever indicated):
    1. Renal function tests, and liver function tests blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine.
    2. C-reactive protein, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplast in time.
    3. Blood gases.
    4. Complete blood count.
  5. Routine cultures on admission; blood and urine cultures. Nonbronchoscopicbroncho-alveolar lavage, stool cultures, and cerebrospinal fluid examination and culture were done (whenever indicated).


The following outcomes were reported

  1. Length of PICU stay.
  2. Fate of patients in PICU (discharged or deceased).


Statistical methodology

Data were collected and entered to the computer using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) program for statistical analysis (version 21) (IBM Corp. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.; Released 2012). Data were entered as numerical or categorical, as appropriate. Kolmogorov–Smirnov test of normality revealed significance in the distribution of some variables, so the nonparametric statistics were adopted [6].
  1. Data were described using minimum, maximum, median, and inter-quartile range for not-normally distributed data.
  2. Categorical variables were described using frequency and percentage of the total.
  3. Comparisons were carried out between two studied independent not-normally distributed subgroups using Mann–Whitney U-test.
  4. χ2-Test was used to test association between qualitative variables. Fisher exact test and Monte-Carlo correction were used whenever indicated.


The binary (Cox) logistic model was used to estimate the probability of a binary response (e.g. type of infection) based on one or more predictor (or independent) variables (features). The calibration was assessed by directly comparing the observed and the customized predicted mortality across subcategories of risk. We employed the Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, where a P value more than 0.05 indicates acceptable calibration [7].

An alpha level was set to 5% with a significance level of 95%, and a β error was accepted up to 20% with a power of study of 80%.


  Results Top


[Table 1] showed that there was no statistical significant relation between the rate of survival and the sex, age, and residence of the studied cases. In addition, there was no statistical significant relation between past medical history, clinical source of sepsis, and the rate of survival. Duration from start of illness till patients arrived hospital (days) was longer in cases who died than cases who survived but without significant relation. The state of immunity had a statistical significant relation with the rate of survival as immunodeficient cases had poorer outcomes than immuncompetent cases [χ2(d.f.=1)=5.230, P=0.022]. Mode of transportation and the number of previous medical centers had no statistical significant relation with the rate of survival. Patients who were referred from a tertiary center: AUCH had better outcomes than patients from other levels of referral (χ2=6.423, P=0.011).
Table 1 Relation between outcome with historical data of the studied cases (n=40)

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[Table 2] revealed that patients who received antibiotics before admission to PICU had better survival than patients who did not receive antibiotics with a statistically significant relation (P=0.024).
Table 2 Relation between the outcome and medical history of the studied cases (before admission)

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Significantly patients who received intravenous antibiotics had better outcomes than patients who received antibiotics by other routes [P(MC)=0.006].

There was no significant relation between interventions that were done to the cases and their outcomes ([Table 3]).
Table 3 Relation between the outcome and interventions done to the studied cases

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[Table 4] showed that there was a significant relation between low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) after admission and poor outcomes [Z(MW)=3.461, P=0.001].
Table 4 Relation between CRT and Glasgow Coma Scale of the studied cases and the outcome

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[Table 5] demonstrated that the degree of sepsis syndrome, presence of arrest and respiratory failure, increased the length of stay and high PIM-2 score had statistically significant impact on the outcome and they were strong predictors for mortality.
Table 5 Relation between the outcome and certain parameters of the pediatric ICU (after admission)

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Multivariate analysis logistic regression was used to determine the most important factors predicting mortality ([Table 6]). GCS was a statistically significant predictor of death. Every unit increase in the GCS will decrease the probability of death by 0.406% (log-units) (odds ratio=0.666; 95% confidence interval: 0.480–0.925) (P=0.015).
Table 6 Multivariate analysis logistic regression for death

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  Discussion Top


Sepsis is a major cause of ICU admission and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Within the last decade, several trials and protocols have focused on this condition, aiming to establish better measures for its management and prevention of potential complications. Therapeutic measures with considerable positive impacts have been largely emphasized. Mastering this challenge is largely related to the art of medical practice and it leads to more objective care of the patients [2].

The aim of this study was to find a correlation between the pre-PICU management and the outcome in pediatric patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

The study was an observational cross-sectional study that was conducted over a year from April 2016 to April 2017 on 40 patients with diagnosis of severe sepsis and septic shock.

Regarding demographic characteristics, there was no statistically significant difference between survivors and nonsurvivors with respect to age, sex, and residence. This was similar to what was found by Weiss et al. [8], Delgado et al. [9], and Pedro et al. [10], all cases in these studies had pediatric septic shock. Weiss in his study titled ‘global epidemiology of pediatric severe sepsis’; studied 569 patients, found that hospital mortality in patients with severe sepsis did not differ by age or residence. Also, Pedro in his study on the etiology and prognostic factors of sepsis among 115 children and adolescents admitted to the ICU established that no significant differences were found for sex, age, and mortality rate. On contrary to the present results, age was found to affect the outcome in several studies on septic shock in adults, as Kucukardali et al. [11], Sadaka et al. [12], Blanco et al. [13], and Kumar et al. [14] found a significant relation between higher ages and mortality.

In the current study, the clinical source of sepsis was insignificantly related with the occurrence of mortality and this was consistent with the results in other researchers’ studies [8],[9],[15]. Weiss in his study on global epidemiology of pediatric severe sepsis, found that the most frequent sites of infection were respiratory (40%) and bloodstream (19%), but with no statistical significant correlation with mortality. However, Esper et al. [16] found that respiratory tract infections particularly pneumonia were associated with the highest mortality.

Gastrointestinal tract infection was the main source of sepsis in the current study (36.8% in survivor group and 42.9% in nonurvivor group), followed by chest infections. This was similar to Randolph et al. [17], who found that diarrheal diseases are major cause of sepsis in infants and children, especially in the underdeveloped world. Other researchers found that chest infection was the primary source of sepsis as Weiss et al. [9], Blanco et al. [13], Kumar et al. [14], and Boechat et al. [15], Annane et al. [18]. This could be attributed to more prevalence of diarrheal disease in underdeveloped world due to poverty, ignorance, and lack of sanitation. Wiess study [9] was a point prevalence study that was conducted for 5 days, whereas our study was observational clinically and the laboratory study was conducted over a year. Other factors that may increase the risk of chest infections, in other studies, include environmental factors, genetic susceptibility, ethnic causes, and also because these studies occurred in developed countries.

The adequacy of initial empirical antimicrobial treatment is crucial in terms of outcome. Timely antibiotic therapy has been shown to reduce a person’s risk of dying from sepsis by 50%. Empiric antimicrobial therapy should be initiated as soon as blood and other relevant sites are cultured and maximal recommended doses should be given parentally [19]. In the current study, a statistical significant relation was found among those who received antibiotics before admission and had a better outcome. This was consistent with the results in other researcher’s studies as Weiss et al. [20] and Garnacho-Montero [21]. Weiss in his study, found that hourly delays from sepsis recognition to initial and first appropriate antimicrobial administration were associated with significant increase in PICU mortality.

Tertiary hospital is a referral hospital providing comprehensive, multidisciplinary, regionalized patient care to children up to 18 years of age. This includes the provision of a full range of medical and surgical care for severely ill children, pediatric residents present with 24 h pediatrician coverage, an organized pediatric research program, pediatric ICU, basic emergency medical service, and physical therapy. In the current study, 15 (37.5%) patients came to AUCH (tertiary hospital) before admission, 14 (35%) from polyclinics, five (12.5%) from primary or secondary hospitals and four (10%) from polyclinics. There was a statistically significant relation between higher survival rate and patients who were admitted at the tertiary hospital. This shows the importance of quality healthcare, providing healthcare services catering to the patient’s needs, at the right time and in a the right way [21].

In the current study regarding length of stay in PICU, it significantly affected mortality as median of days of survived cases was 8 versus 3 days in nonsurvivors. However, other studies by Weiss et al. [8] and Delgado et al. [9] found that length of stay did not affect mortality as there was no significant difference between survivors and nonsurvivors. This can be explained by severity of the disease in those patients who died so they stayed for short duration in PICU.

Regarding PIM-2 score, which was done on admission, it was significantly higher in the nonsurvivors and, the P value was 0.002, a finding that was similar to many other researchers as Leteurtre et al. [22], Slater et al. [23], Martha et al. [24], Rajasekaran et al. [25], and Alqahtani et al. [26]. However, Delgado et al. [9] found that PIM-2 score had no significant difference between survivors and nonsurvivors and he attributed this result due to small sample size. The current study had relatively high mean PIM-2 score 35.3 (±29.7%) on the day of admission that reflects the severity of their condition. This is self-explanatory because this PICU is the referral center and the highest tertiary care center serving four governorates.

Pre-PICU management in cases of severe sepsis and septic shock remains the cornerstone in the outcome of the patients, and it can also be the direct cause of better outcome of cases of severe sepsis and septic shock. Vincent et al. [27] stated that, ‘if you want to change outcomes in ICU, look at what happens before the patient comes to the ICU’.

The following facts were obtained from the current study:
  1. Gastrointestinal tract and chest infection were the most common clinical sources of sepsis.
  2. Administration of proper intravenous antimicrobial therapy with the onset of sepsis is an important factor in better prognosis of septic shock.
  3. Referral from a tertiary hospital as AUCH to PICU is a good indicator of a better prognosis.
  4. PIM-2 score is a good predictor of mortality on the first day of admission to PICU.


Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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